Trick ’r treat

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Trick 'r Treat – Die Nacht der Schrecken ist ein US-amerikanisch-kanadischer Horrorfilm von Michael Dougherty aus dem Jahr , der jedoch erst auf. limapaskennel.se - Kaufen Sie Trick 'r Treat günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und Details zu einer. Michael Doughertys Horror-Komödie Trick'r Treat - Die Nacht der Schrecken erzählt vier ineinander verwobene Geschichten, die sich alle in einer unheimlich.​. Im Haloween Filmtipp sehen wir uns den moderne Feiertags Horror Klassiker Trick 'r Treat von Michael Dougherty an. Dan's Freakshow. You spend weeks begging them to let you trick-or-treat anyway. люб​лю РІСњВ¤ | Р’РљРѕРРтакте.

trick ’r treat

limapaskennel.se - Kaufen Sie Trick 'r Treat günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und Details zu einer. You spend weeks begging them to let you trick-or-treat anyway. люб​лю РІСњВ¤ | Р’РљРѕРРтакте. люблю РІСњВ¤ | Р’РљРѕРРтак​те You spend weeks begging them to let you trick-or-treat anyway.

Dried up or Town in Nigeria Doctor of withered Vestments Education Stitch clothing Builds up Soviet Socialist Tilted Estes Blue Republic abbr.

Protrude Bloods character Helicopter Nursing group Loosen a bottle Heat unit 1. Frozen water Body atrophy 2. Winglike structures Inferior substitute Caused cell 3.

Rend Swerve off course destruction 4. Disposed of to a Ferrell Xmas movie River in NE Scotland Preserves temperature of drinks Parts of a whole Decays Expressed pleasure Form Vipers Overly precious British Express pleasure Nonsense slang Czech River Cambodian monetary unit Francis Lee uses his vast medical knowledge and surgical expertise to diagnose and treat the underlying causes of leg pain, swelling, varicose veins, and other symptoms of vein disease.

Francis Lee, M. Pre-register if possible for this free craft class. Make a gift that can never be opened!

Join us to learn more about this unique art form! Be sure to sign up for a free lunch if you are an October birthday baby.

Then enjoy the choral group performance in your honor. Come and test your trivia knowledge and have fun doing it!

Weekly lunch menu Monday, Oct. Our advertisers make this publication possible. Responsibilities of this position include review building permit applications, process permits on computer software, and processing payroll and vendor bills on weekly basis.

Applicants need to have skills pertaining to dealing with the public on a day to day basis. High school Diploma or equivalent with 3 to 5 years of related work experience or any equivalent combination of education, training and experience.

Applications may be found on our website: www. Art will be available for purchase. Applicants should be familiar with town government and have good writing skills.

A degree in communications, English or journalism is not required, but encouraged. The applicant should be available on nights.

Position is paid per story. Please send cover letter, resume and writing samples to Editor Aimee M.

Henderson at P. T Breckwood Blvd. Springfield, MA www. I t happened to me! A couple of weeks back, I got a phone call from a man with an Indian accent claiming that there was a warrant issued for the arrest of someone living at my address.

I immediately hung up. A few days later, I received a voicemail message on my home phone. He only said I should immediately call a number, I remember it was a area code.

I played the message on speakerphone for Bobby, and we had a good laugh. I, of course, just hung up.

Bobby, on the other hand, is hoping the guy will call back, so he can have some fun with the lousy crook. Even though I know about this scam, I have to say it was a tad alarming to be told that someone living at this residence has a warrant out for his or her arrest.

Bobby, of course, was not alarmed. I make a bit of fun here, but really, this is a serious matter.

Many people have been duped by these scammers. To make it appear even more official, caller ID may show a Washington D. I checked into the call I received.

It was a area code, Washington D. If you think you owe money to the IRS, contact them at And if you want to take it a step further, report the call to local police or call Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration at No election letters will appear in the final edition before the election.

We reserve the right to edit letters to the editor to meet our guidelines. To publish campaign publicity, please contact our Advertising Representative Tracy Whitney at We do not publish for free any information about key endorsements or political fundraisers.

Letters to the Editor Letters to the editor should be words or less in length. No unsigned or anonymous opinions will be published.

We require letter writers to include his or her town of residence and home telephone number. We must authenticate authorship prior to publication.

We reserve the right to edit or withhold any submissions deemed to be libelous or contain unsubstantiated allegations, personal attacks, defamation of character and offensive language.

All unknown or alleged facts and quotations offered by the author need to cite credible, unbiased sources. Send letters to: The Register, 24 Water St.

Following up to an article that appeared in the Aug. It was a very long walk but worth every drop of sweat. On Sunday, Sept. The Heartbreak Hill was long but not very steep, actually easier than many hills we walked before.

The six months training did its job, and we all were able to get to the Finish Line, tired but very happy. Those of us who had to, reported for duties Monday morning as usual.

When it comes to raising money, our group came in th out of as of Sept. Among the new groups for this year, we ranked 36th out of We are proud of ourselves.

There were over 8, walkers and 1, volunteers this year. This is a reason to celebrate. We would like to thank everyone who supported us.

Coombs Intentional. Stealth acts were performed with peerless skill in the silent, dark shadows. Hours before dawn, a slick path was staked out, planned and completed with unparalleled expertise.

On that chilly October morning, an unsuspecting gunboat was overtaken, and a seasoned, stow-a-way mission was accomplished in less than 24 hours.

Please send photo captions identifying all subjects in your image s from left to right. We need first and last name, hometown, title if applicable, and a brief description of what subjects are doing in the photo.

If you are having difficulty with a press release or need help, please call Editor Paula Killough at Telephone , Fax His well built, over 6-foot frame, almost dressed for a busy workday: Shirt.

Sports Jacket. Belted slacks. The other Size 14 shoe swung dangling from his left hand as shoestrings jostled mid air.

Acorns are bombarding our roof and burying our yard, walkway and driveway. Materials will not be returned except upon specific request when submitted.

How did they do? If you would like the photo returned, please include a self-addressed, stamped envelope. After whisking the seed debris out of this shoe, he sat down putting on his remaining sock and shoe.

Looking up with his typical Cheshire-cat grin and quick wit, and knowing that his humor would make my day, I waited for his retort.

Grabbing his briefcase in stride, he spread-eagled his way through autumnstrewn acorns along our walkway.

Comments welcomed. Anyone with information regarding these crimes is asked to call the Ludlow Police Department at The most current contracts, which became effective on July 1, , and run through June 30, , call for a 2 percent increase in each fiscal year.

These reserve officers, who pay their own way through the academy and receive the same training as full-time police officers, provide coverage at more than 35 town events, handle traffic duty and supplement regular patrols as needed.

The department would need to add another 20 full-time officers to offset their presence, Madera said. Although the department is not obligated to pay these officers, who must volunteer a minimum of hours a year, they are sometimes provided compensation as a courtesy, he added.

Madera said he has money in his budget to cover the increase. The monies will be used to fund corrosion prevention measures that will extend the life of the vehicle.

Fire Chief Mark Babineau said side impact roll protection will also be installed in the pumper. He said roughly firefighters are killed in the U.

Article 14 changed the notice requirement from 48 hours to 30 days for individuals seeking written permission from the Board of Selectmen to hold a parade or procession on public streets or sidewalks.

The new section, which would require property owners to maintain vacant and abandoned property, extended the grace period up to 60 days and instituted an appeal process.

Rooney said this article was originally included on the warrant of a Special Town Meeting last October, but it was revised following suggestions from some precinct members.

He said the impetus for the article was a complaint he received from a Noel Street resident who lives across the street from a blighted property.

Rosemary Brodeur, who resides at 25 Chapin St. Chief among their concerns is well water contamination. Vieira attempted to speak, but a motion to extend the debate failed with a head count.

Article 22 passed overwhelmingly. You can find the Ludlow Register on facebook. Log on today for local news updates and share your news and stories with us!

Ahlberg and Goodman offer portraits to clients based on their astrological analysis. They, along with resident artist Tess Ahlberg, encourage residents from Indian Orchard and surrounding communities to visit their art show on Saturdays from noon to 4 p.

All donations benefit the Community Survival Center. I know it will make the color pop. Insurance Agency, Inc. The main goal of the board is to improve the quality of life for residents and businesses of the Indian Orchard community.

Meetings begin at 7 p. Box , Indian Orchard, MA You are a self-motivated creative and driven full-time multimedia account executive.

We are an award-winning premier parenting publication in Western MA. The couple had their honeymoon in Aruba.

Provost is the former Marguerite Tourville. Provost were married on Aug. John the Baptist Church in Ludlow.

The Rev. Charles Gendreau officiated the ceremony. They are the grandparents of Isabela and Alexandra Lamorte.

Provost was a branch office manager at Philips Federal Credit Union for 30 years. Provost is a technical project manager. Dansereau is studying software engineering.

The Library Loft For more information call ext. Please, no magazines or Reader's Digest Condensed Books. We accept books only in good, clean condition.

Our New Hours Tues. Is the personal connection with your banker broken? Is your business no longer the priority it once was? The fact is NUVO Bank is a local bank with local decision-making and with experienced business lenders who actually call our area home.

It has been nothing but a pleasure to work with them over the last three years. We look forward to future advertising ideas and appreciate them working so hard for us!

They constantly see me in Turley newspapers and I do not believe for a minute that I would have gotten where I am today, without advertising weekly.

For m Rand ore than a with ll Family 50 years, T famil urley Pu has adve the r b y custo owned lications tised b , to st mers read usiness.

The top three female and male finishers from each elementary school were awarded medals and prizes donated by Luso Federal Credit Union and other gracious sponsors.

Turley Publications submitted photo Knowing how much it helps Ludlow schools with funding throughout the year, l-r Hannah Loranzatto, 10, Sabrina Barroso, 11, and Alina Banas 11, at Vets Park fifth-graders, put their walking shoes on and participate in the Lions Roar 5K.

Liberty Family Farms Friday-Sun. Thank you for being a great paper for our community. Schools and families in the Ludlow community should be especially encouraged to take part after enjoying local success in There will also be one prize awarded for a school decoration.

Be Drug Free. You must be 18 years or older to upload the photo and can do so from any desktop or mobile device. The same study showed that substance use by adolescents could be prevented through early interventions, including parental involvement.

In fact, 96 percent of youths who perceived strong parental disapproval for trying marijuana once or twice remained drug free.

Unlike most area scholarships, these awards are based on academic merit, regardless of financial need. Completed applications must be submitted by Feb.

Savings Accounts. For family security. The answer - simply an amazing day of youth football! Although the Pee-Wee team eventually fell , this was a game that was much closer than the final score would indicate.

After holding Longmeadow to a four-and-out on their opening series, the offensive line opened up some nice holes for Ryan Kennedy and Brady DeBarge, who would put the Lions on the board first with a lengthy scoring run.

Szymczyk and McGourty, who have known each other since they were in the sixth grade, combined for the Lady Lions first goal against Agawam leading to a shutout victory in a non-league match played under the lights at Ludlow High School, last Tuesday night, Sept.

It was a pretty good feeling. Some are less flattering than others. The boys soccer game between Ludlow and Chicopee, in the eyes of many from Ludlow would likely be categorized in not so pleasant terms.

Seven minutes into the game, the Lions scored a goal and continued to have an edge in possession through the first half.

They outshot the Pacers, At approximately the same point in the second half, , Chicopee evened the score.

They were still outshot by Ludlow, but the ball was kept out of the net and the Lions went home, with a tie. In the first minute Brad Garete got a shot from the side of the Chicopee goal and Josh Rogowski came out to get.

In the third, Chicopee had a big opportunity after a Cody Jones corner kick. The ball went into the crowd in front of the net.

Brendan Berube got off a shot that was stopped by Tyler Diotalevi. The ball rebounded to Atheer Albahadly, who put one on Diotalevi.

All of that led to another corner kick for Jones. LaBonte found Frangules about 5 yards away from the left post and pushed a pass to him.

Frangules found the opening between Rogowski and the post with played, Ludlow had a lead. The teams moved back and forth up and down the field after that.

In the 11th minute Jones had another corner kick. In the 14th, Batuhan Citlak was wide right with a shot. In the 20th, Goncalves had a corner kick for the Lions.

After Chicopee cleared, the broke downfield, where Dan Vazquez was able to get a shot from 20 yards that bounced off the crossbar.

Frangules had a break in the 28th minute and got off a shot from 10 yards out. Rogowski knocked it away.

Turley Publications photo by David Henry sweetdogphotos. Seconds later, it was Davin Kendall with a shot to the left of the goal.

As the first half went into the final , the action slowed. Then in the final , it picked up. Berube sent a yarder just to the left of the goal in the 34th minute.

Diotalevi went after it. Jones had a free kick in the 35th and in the 38th, Rogowski covered up a 10yard shot from David Goncalves.

The half ended with Ludlow leading The second half started out much like the first, with Ludlow pressuring at the Chicopee end.

After the Lions swarmed the net, Bruno Machado had a corner kick in the second minute, which went right in front of the goal.

Rogowski came out a few feet to kick it away. A minute later Chicopee got the ball downfield where Brandon Bailey sent one through the crease past Diotalevi.

In the fourth minute, Goncalves had a free kick from the ten. He veered away from the ball and Machado kicked it, but it was blocked at the wall set up by the Pacers.

In the sixth minute Chicopee managed to clear the ball and that led to a Jones corner kick.

When the Lions were unable to clear the ball, Kaleb Figueroa picked it up at about the yard line. He passed it inside to Bailey at the 5.

The pass was high and Bailey out jumped the defender to head it past Diotalevi for the tying goal. The time was into the second half.

The Titans overall improved to against prep school competition with the win over the Class A school. Sugermeyer joined five other Western New England greats who comprised the 16th class inducted to the Downes Hall during a ceremony held at Rivers Memorial Hall.

Known as a pioneer in the sport of wrestling at the University, Sugermeyer competed on the grassroots club team as a freshman in that led to varsity status two years later.

In his sophomore year, he was the junior varsity captain and team most valuable player in As a result, he was the recipient of what is now known as the Joe Leto Award for greatest contribution to team effort.

A two-time varsity captain, he wrapped up his career after the season as a senior scholar-athlete and all-college performer. He wrestled at the weight class during his collegiate career.

While attending graduate school and maintaining a full-time at the same time, Sugermeyer stayed on with the program for the campaign helping then-coach Bob Skelton.

Sugermeyer recalls the best advice his college coach gave him occurred during a road trip to Plymouth, N. In addition, he has been active in the community as a Western Massachusetts wrestling official from and coaching the youth wrestling program at the Scantic Valley YMCA in Wilbraham for the past 10 years.

Sugermeyer also stays active by road biking, competing in five Olympic distance triathlons and running in 33 marathons including 17 in the famed Boston Marathon.

He is a professional educator of accounting in the College of Business at the University. His teaching career began as an adjunct instructor at Western New England in He makes his home in Hampden with his wife, Tracey, and the couple has three children: Laura 25 , Michael 23 and Kevin Being a Golden Bear and earning his bachelor's and master's degree at the University have had a profound impact on Sugermeyer's life since adulthood.

I was a commuter who came to a school without wrestling. My first job in public accounting was at one of my professor's firms.

I have coached here at WNE. I have taught here at WNE. I met my wife here at WNE at a wrestling function. I currently serve as the wrestling team's faculty fellow.

My son, Michael, is currently the assistant coach here at WNE, so I can't wait to see the fruits of his current recruits this upcoming wrestling season.

In addition to coaching, Michael works as a media services technology support assistant at the University. Boys Soccer Ludlow at Amherst 4 p.

Golf Ludlow at Belchertown 3 p. Girls Volleyball Ludlow at Commerce 4 p. She had two shutouts in the past week and has only lost one match all season.

Falcons goaltender Anton Forsberg stopped 21 of 23 shots in victory. Wolf Pack goaltender Jason Missiaen turned away 10 of 11 shots before being replaced by Jeff Malcolm, who allowed one goal on 15 shots.

The Falcons were unable to convert on two power-play opportunities. After a scoreless first period, the Falcons struck first at the mark of the middle frame.

Austin Madaisky passed to Mike Hoeffel, who skated the puck into the offensive zone and took a wrist shot from the left circle.

The high shot slid under the crossbar to give the Falcons a lead. Springfield increased their lead over Hartford at the mark.

Trent Vogelhuber brought the puck across the slot and passed back to the stick of Hubert Labrie. Labrie beat Malcolm to add another Springfield tally.

Tynan was credited with the secondary assist. The Wolf Pack answered with remaining in the second period. Forsberg made the initial save on a Nick Tarnasky shot.

Vinny Saponari picked up a point for the helper. The Falcons entered the second intermission leading, Hartford scored once more in the third period to force overtime.

Saponari earned his second point of the contest with the secondary assist. A scoreless overtime frame led to a shootout.

The Springfield Falcons will open the regular season at Syracuse Oct. The Falcons were able to convert on one of three power play opportunities.

The penalty kill unit allowed two goals on six Bruins man-advantages. The Bruins opened scoring and carried a lead into the first intermission.

Tyler Randell scored a power-play goal for the Bruins at the mark. Randell powered a shot from the left point while the Falcons were down a man due to a high-sticking penalty.

Joe Morrow and Jared Knight each picked up a point for the assist. Springfield scored once in the middle frame, but allowed two Providence goals, ending the period down, Domenic Monardo received a pass from Ryan Craig in the crease and put the Falcons on the board with a power-play goal 37 seconds into the period.

Lukas Sedlak earned a point for the helper. The Bruins responded three minutes later. Knight redirected a pass from Randell to put Providence back on top, Morrow was credited with the secondary assist.

Providence scored again with a power-play goal at the mark. Knight passed the puck down to Andrew Cherniwchan, who set up Randell for his third point of the game.

The Bruins added two to their tally in the third period to secure a victory over the Falcons. Cody Sylvester found the back of the net with an unassisted shot from the slot at the mark.

The Bruins scored for the final time with remaining in the game. Dansk stopped the initial shot from Ben Youds, but Rob Flick was able to control the puck and score on the rebound.

Alexander Fallstrom earned a point on the play with the secondary assist. There are the annual major community event features that we should always cover, but we are more than open to suggestions of other features to celebrate the fabric of our communities and their many interesting occupants.

Our loyal advertisers provide funding for this paid staff coverage. Division 1 Tournament by only one point.

Most impressively, the Titans beat a solid team without four-year starter Bailey Giese concussion. She then dribbled the ball up the field and fired a shot past Agawam junior goalkeeper Jenna Beach, who was credited with nine saves in the contest.

Szymczyk now has nine career varsity goals with five of them coming when she was a sophomore.

A little more than later, sophomore forward Julianna Iwasinski put a beautiful shot from the right side into the left corner for an unassisted goal giving the home team a lead.

It was her fourth goal of the season. Down at the other end of the field, Ludlow senior goalkeeper Meghan McCarthy only had to make one save in the match, which came on a corner kick during the second half.

The three goal scorers in that contest were junior midfielder Jennifer Hackett, senior midfielder Molly Palatino, and senior midfielder Olivia Santos.

The Lady Brownies lost against Minnechaug, last Thursday night. Unlike recent years, the Titans have one thing they can always count on going into a match: experienced senior leadership, with the Academy sporting seven members in the Class of It helps most of us have played with each other for three or four years.

We have a big senior class. Coach Barone said her new assistant coach, John Reidy, has been an invaluable addition to the team this season.

The Senior team had the toughest task of the day, facing an undefeated Longmeadow squad. Running a unique offensive set, Kowalski hit Michael Hastings with a touchdown pass in the first half and connected again with Jacob Ferris late in the game.

With their home schedule complete, Ludlow will play their final two regular season games on the road. The two teams traded scores to open the second half and knot the game at Unfortunately for the Lions, a Longmeadow interception would allow the visitors to take the lead for good.

Some bright spots for the Lions included the defensive play of Mason Marques, Adrian Leiper and Roniel Traveras, who chased down a Longmeadow breakaway runner to the 1-yard line and captivated the crowd with his own touchdown saving tackle.

The Junior team solidified their spot in the playoffs with a thrilling win. Whereas Longmeadow has tradition and history on their side, Ludlow has Jamonte Beckett, an exciting firstyear player who creates magic on the field.

Beckett rushed for two touchdowns in the first half, including a spectacular play during which he was swarmed by two Longmeadow defenders, lost the ball, picked it back up and continued on into the end zone.

Beckett also had one reception for a touchdown and one interception on defense. Sunday, Oct. In the 11th, he sent one from the right side that forced Diotalevi to come out in order to keep it away from other Pacers.

In the 12th, the ball was back on the other end and Goncalves sent a 20 yarder just to the right of the goal.

Nick Dos Santos had a corner kick in the 15th. More shots rang out for Ludlow with Rogowski making a diving stop in the 16th minute off a yarder by Garete.

A minute after that, Garete was wide left from 8 yards. Back to the Ludlow end, it was Albahadly with a shot on goal from 15 yards in the 20th minute and in the 24th, Doyle could not corral a crossing pass from Aymen Saady in front of the goal.

A minute later, Machado led Frangules with a pass, but his shot from The Tim Peterson is a sports correspondent for Turley Publications.

In the 28th minute, Rogowski came well out of the goal to pick up a loose ball. Machado was wide left from 30 yards.

Jones took a free kick in the 33rd minute and it was right on goal, where Diotalevi made the save. It was a similar situation in the 35th as Jacob Parker put a yarder on Rogowski.

The Lions had one last shot in the 38th minute, when Frangules sent one through the crease and Garete followed with a yarder that went over the goal.

The Lions peppered Chicopee with 18 shots, while Diotalevi faced just eight, stopping seven. Nate Rosenthal is a sports correspondent for Turley Publications.

Bernardo, Died Sept. Omer M. Bernardo, 86, of Ludlow, passed into the great beyond Tuesday, Sept. Born Nov.

Navy Seabees. He saw extensive service in the Pacific Theater. He was a lifelong electrician and owner of Bernardo Electric. In the years after his retirement, he served as the Electrical Inspector for the Town of Ludlow.

Omer leaves many nieces, nephews and friends. Aloysius Cemetery, Berkshire Avenue, Springfield. For more information, please go to www.

The committee meets once a month throughout the year, taking summer months off, to coordinate and implement all aspects of local, state and federal emergency preparedness guidelines.

Keeping a wallet inventory will help you to provide information to all relevant financial and business industries to keep your accounts secure and lessen your exposure to identity theft.

All information will remain confidential. Route begins and ends in Palmer each day. Hours are p. Mondays, Tuesdays and Fridays.

Must have a valid drivers license, insurance and good driving record. You will be using your own vehicle.

Please apply in person to fill out an application. Turley Publications, Inc. Volunteers can be utilized for EDS and widespread medical emergencies as well.

We performed a second EDS drill last year. Both drills were performed in cooperation with the State Department of Public Health and representatives from surrounding communities.

I encourage everyone to please consider becoming a volunteer because no matter how many volunteers we have listed, not everyone can show up at the same time.

Pszeniczny said the Senior Center may expand on the Wallet Inventory Program in the future to include a program that will help to keep Internet information at the ready.

Most people save this information on their computers, but what if your computer crashes? Creating a hard copy inventory of all usernames and passwords will keep this information available and secure.

To find out more about the Wallet Inventory Program or to download a form, go to www. If this describes you, please send your resume to: Timothy D.

Jude for prayers answered. American Idol or TV late news. Plus, many more read local papers online. Newspapers, in all forms, are still the primary source for news in the U.

The subject of the hearing is a Variance of a Sign. Anthony W. The Local Emergency Planning Committee would like to announce the following information concerning meetings, planning and information storage.

Meetings of the Local Emergency Planning Committee are generally held at p. The public is invited to attend. Meeting notices are placed at the Ludlow Town Hall and should be checked prior to attending as some monthly meetings may be rescheduled.

The Committee has developed an integrated emergency response plan and these plans are available to be reviewed. Additional material that is site specific for hazardous material storage is also available at the same location.

These records may be viewed at the Ludlow Fire Department, Monday through Friday by appointment only from a. Proper photo identification will be required.

The subject of the meeting is: Clearing of the lot, construction of house with septic system in the front and the well in the rear.

Site plans, if applicable, are on file for inspection in the Planning Board Office. Please come and pray in the public square to ask Our Lady to intercede on behalf of our country because America truly needs her help.

Mike Ferreira will be hosting and providing the dinner and entertainment. Bar opens at 6 p. We will need reservations and check by Sept.

Admission is free. Bonsai workshops will be held from 10 a. Space is limited. To learn more go to www.

Public invited. All are welcome. Drop off times for donations will be Monday, Oct. Donations of gently used clothing for all ages and household items are greatly appreciated.

We will accept small electrical items in working order, but no TVs or electronics. Spaghetti with meat sauce and macaroni and cheese will be served, along with salad, bread and butter, coffee, tea and dessert.

Kids under four are FREE. Advance purchase of tickets is recommended. For more information or to purchase tickets, call the parsonage at Visitors are invited to enjoy many favorite Armenian dinners.

Both traditional Armenian and American baked goods will be featured. Take-out will be available by calling Raffle prizes.

Admission and parking are free. For more information, please call the Church office at Homer P. Thursday, Oct.

Friday, Oct. Saturday, Oct. Mass; a. Mass; 11 a. Mass; 5 p. Monday, Oct. Tuesday, Oct. Ludlow Rev.

Please join us and introduce yourself if you are visiting! Visit our website at www. The First Church in Ludlow is now open for prayer and meditation on Tuesdays from 4 to 6 p.

Please join us in solitude or in fellowship. Sunday mornings. Tuesday, p. Wednesday, 8 p. Thursday, 7 p. Jeffrey K.

Fellowship hour following Office Hours: Wednesday, 9 a. Christ the King Church 41 Warsaw Ave. Pastor Rev. Raymond A.

Polish ; 10 a. Barbaro at or Michelle Roderick Lussier at Immaculate Conception Church 24 Parker St. English ; a. Polish ; 5 p. William Pomerleau, Pastor Please note: services for St.

Tuesday: 6 p. Confessions in Spanish; p. Adoration of Blessed Sacrament in Spanish Thursday: p.

Reconciliation Schedule: Saturday to p. Harvest Bible Chapel Services are held at 10 a. For more information, visit www.

Douglas E. Fish Sunday Services: a. Sunday School for all Ages; a. Fellowship for all Ages; 11 a. Sunday Worship Service. Thursday Evening at p.

Gathering for prayer at the church. Sunday evenings at p. Leader is Justin Wenners. Classes for Young Women; Noon to 1 p.

Classes for Young Single Adult Men. A Novena to St. Peregrine, patron saint for those with cancer, takes place every Monday at p.

Cancer patients, cancer survivors, friends of cancer victims, and the general public are invited to attend.

Children ages two to 12 must dress up to trick-or-treat on the zoo grounds. Staff and volunteers will hand out free treats to young zoo-goers.

Kids who participate will also receive a free bag of animal feed to include the animals in some Halloween fun. Face painting; free coloring and activity books, and pumpkin painting.

The 5K will be held Sunday, Oct. Social hour begins at a. Bank Clothiers of Longmeadow. Luncheon choices are salmon, chicken francaise, roast pork loin.

For reservations, call by Oct. Proceeds will benefit scholarships and many community projects.

Christmas crafts, knitted goods, bake sale, jewelry, attic treasures, clothing, pillows, handcrafted sewn items, raffles, auctions, used books, used toys and much more.

If so, your probe is ok! The oscilloscope displays repetitive signals. For the display on the screen to appear stable stationary , the beam which draws the waveform must start on the left side of the screen at the identical point in the signal each time it sweeps across the screen.

The trigger controls determine when the sweep starts. The controls allow the user to select at what voltage level the signal must be at the instant that the sweep starts.

The trigger level is shown by the arrow on the right side of the display graph. When the square wave appears stationary, it has been properly triggered.

Note that the trigger source must be set to the channel to which the voltage signal is connected. To set the trigger source, push the trigger MENU button to show the trigger menu on the screen.

Select the appropriate channel using the buttons to the right of the screen. Pressing it again, unfreezes the display.

The scope has a button for automatically optimizing the display settings ver- [LR 7] tical scale, horizontal scale, and trigger level for a given signal.

However, be wary. This button is not always intelligent enough to capture what you want. Try it out!

Now look at the display and figure out the frequency of the square wave and record it. Use the screen capture to copy the square wave as measured by Channel 1.

Find frequency and amplitude and Laboratory 1. Introduction to Equipment 9 select them for display. Record these values.

Of course, just like the multimeter, these measurements are not perfect. Find the datasheet on this device to find the associated measurement accuracy.

Record these uncertainties with your measurements. You can now disconnect the Channel 1 probe from the test signal on the oscilloscope.

Notice how the displayed signal is now almost a flat line since the probe is measuring the voltage through the air.

Now we will look at tools used to generate inputs. The first of these is the Tektronix CFG function generator.

What kind of functions does it generate? Why, voltage as a function of time, of course. These functions have various shapes from sinusoidal waves, to square waves, to sawtooth waves and so on.

This tool will be a common adjustable input for future circuits. You are generating a periodic voltage which oscillates about some DC offset.

This will limit your voltage output to 2 V, peak-to-peak. Now you are ready to examine the signal on the oscilloscope.

Generate a sine wave on your function generator. There should be a button that looks like the sine wave.

Make sure that none of the other buttons on that row are pressed at the same time. Try adjusting the amplitude until you can see the sine wave on your scope.

Set the frequency to 1 kHz according to the display on the function generator. Then, try checking this output on the scope to see if it really is 1 kHz.

You may want to use the measure feature again. If it is not right on your target, gently adjust the frequency until it is.

The fine adjustment knob might be helpful for this. Increase the amplitude of your function generator output to the 2 V maxi- [LR 9] Laboratory 1.

Introduction to Equipment 10 mum and watch the scope display as you do so. Verify that the function generator output is a sine wave with peak-to-peak amplitude of approximately 2 V and a frequency of 1 kHz.

Capture this screen. This will extend your maximum voltage output to 20 volts, peak-to-peak. Then set the oscilloscope Channel 1 vertical scale to 2 V per division.

Now adjust the amplitude on the function generator until the sine wave has a peak-to-peak amplitude of 4 V.

Turn the knob until the bottom of the sine wave is moved to 0 V on the scope display. This is how you make sure that your waveform is within a certain voltage range in this case, 0 V to 4 V.

For example, many logic circuits require that the voltage be within a 0 V to 5 V range. If you simply turned on the function generator without verifying the voltage output range, you could have damaged your circuit components.

Screen-capture your off-set sine wave. Disconnect the function generator and turn it off. Unlike the function generator, this device supplies voltage or current which is not a function of time.

This will be your main power source for all your DC circuits. Today, we simply examine how to measure a fixed voltage from the supply.

This means that across the two terminals there is a 5 V potential difference. That is, between the positive red terminal and negative black terminal, we have 5 V.

These terminals are limited to supplying 3 A current. We can use the multimeter or the oscillo- [LR 11] scope. Try it with the meter first and then the oscilloscope, using the knowledge you gained in Section 1 and 2.

Record the measured voltage from each device and include the uncertainty as before. You should also be careful when using the measurement tool on the scope.

Does it make sense to use the amplitude tool, or is another one more appropriate? Please explain.

Introduction to Equipment 11 3. Nothing happened, right? This is because the output you are measuring is fixed at 5 V.

These knobs are linked to the other terminals which you will use in the next lab for getting other voltages of your desire.

Now you can disconnect these tools and turn them off. View this clearly on your oscilloscope using Channel 2. Screen-capture your output.

All circuit components should go in the cup at your station. Lead cables should be returned to the racks.

BNC adapters should be put back in proper bins. Scope probes should not be coiled, but draped over the bench. All tools should be turned off - especially meters.

You will also learn how to build a circuit using a breadboard. Breadboards are indispensable tools for prototyping electronic circuits and for experimenting with circuit design.

Because of this, we will use breadboards extensively throughout this course. Sometimes it is necessary to make important comparisons or conclusions based on measured values.

Doing this may involve making calculations with your measured values. For these types of calculations, it is necessary to carry the uncertainty through as well.

You must consider uncertainty. Suppose the resistance measurement, with uncertainty, is 8. The relative uncertainty is given by 0.

So, how do measurement uncertainties propagate through our calculations? A simple way to calculate worst case uncertainty is to use the following rules: 1.

Addition and subtraction rule: when adding or subtracting quantities, the absolute uncertainty of each quantity are summed.

For example, 5. Product and quotient rule: when multiplying or dividing quantities, the 12 Laboratory 2.

DC Circuits 13 relative uncertainty of each quantity are summed. With these rules we can now say that the current from above should be 2.

If the difference between observed and calculated current is within this range, we can be satisfied. If not, we have to attribute the error to something other than measurement error.

This is an extremely important aspect of data analysis. As engineers applying theory in practice, you must be able to account for uncertainties and discrepancies.

Note: For important measurements, we will ask you to perform uncertainty calculations. The TA will review, sign and return the pre-lab to you in the same session.

To receive credit you must attach the signed copy to your final report. If you find errors in your pre-lab you may make corrections and attach the revision to your final lab report.

The final lab report is a formal report and must be typed and well written. Report writing is explained in detail in the Sample Lab and Report chapter of the Supplemental Information section.

Consider two resistors in series, one with a resistance of If the current through each resistor is 1.

For the voltage divider shown in Figure 2. If the voltage input, Vin , in Figure 2. Why or why not? Laboratory 2.

One: Diode IN There should be two sets of three sockets. By utilizing both channels i. Each channel can operate as a current supply or as a voltage supply.

Set both channels as voltage supplies using the slider controls between the displays. The middle socket green is earth ground.

In this lab we will just let the DC power supply float. Pick one of the DC power supply channels. We want to display the voltage supplied by the power supply on the oscilloscope.

Connect the DC voltage supply i. The lines represent how the holes on the breadboard are electrically connected. Turn on the DC Power Supply.

Verify that the output from the power supply agrees with what you see on the oscilloscope. Does the output make sense?

Disconnect the DC Power Supply from the oscilloscope. Section 2: Introduction to the Breadboard Figure 2.

Of the three sockets on the board, two should be dark red and one should be black. We will use the black socket to supply the circuit with common ground GND and the dark red sockets to supply the circuit with power.

The sockets accept banana cables. Wire with stripped ends are used to connect the sockets to the breadboard section.

Various circuit elements can be easily assembled on the breadboard. Usually, power voltage supply and ground GND are provided to the W, X, Y, and Z rows these are electrically connected horizontally, as shown in Figure 2.

As a habit, always color-code your circuits. For example, black wire should only be used for ground GND connections, while red wire should only be used for positive voltage supplies.

Although this may not seem very exciting, it will get us started setting up circuits on the breadboard and making measurements.

Setup the circuit shown in Figure 2. Make sure to test all resistors on the DMM first to ensure they are the correct resistances. Vary the voltage from 0 V to 20 V in increments of your choice and measure the corresponding current at each step.

To use your digital multi-meter DMM as a current meter, you must put the red probe into the yellow mA jack and select the appropriate current A range using the dial of the DMM.

You may have to use appropriately colored alligator connectors to connect your DMM probes to your circuit board.

Plot your data for both resistor values on a graph with voltage values on the ordinate y-axis and current values on the abscissa x-axis.

Do the curves appear to be linear? If they are linear, what is the slope of each line? Hint: You may want to use a spreadsheet program with graphing capabilities.

You will probably have to change the settings of the DMM in order to measure the higher currents present.

Do not exceed 6. Plot your results and provide a table. Get enough points to show how the [LR 2] lamp slightly diverges from resistor-like linear performance.

Is this a reasonable question? We need to modify the test setup here because you cannot just apply a voltage across a diode, as you did for the resistor and lamp above.

To do this, wire up the circuit shown in Figure 2. Connect the potentiometer using the center pin and one of the two outside pins.

Use one DMM as your current meter and the other as the volt meter. Note that in this circuit you are applying a current to the diode and recording the resulting diode voltage.

By varying the potentiometer you vary the amount of current being applied. This is somewhat different than before where you applied a voltage to the resistor and recorded the resulting current.

Plot the voltage vs. Next, plot this data on a semi-log graph, i. What can you say about the current voltage relationship for a diode from the semi-log plot?

See what happens when you reverse the direction of the diode. How would [LR 5] you summarize the voltage vs.

Explain your answer. Section 5: DC Voltage Divider If we apply a voltage across two resistors, R1 and R2 , connected in series the total voltage drop is split among the them.

The voltage drop across each resistor can be determined from the relative magnitude of R1 and R2. This is known as voltage division.

Construct the voltage divider shown in Figure 2. Use a DMM to measure Vout. What is the uncertainty on this measurement?

The volt meter and current meter are used to take measurements of your [LR 8] circuit, but do they have any undesired effect upon it?

The answer, as you can probably guess, is yes. Looking at how the meters are connected in the circuit, what would you want their ideal internal resistances to be?

Can you Laboratory 2. DC Circuits 19 see how any deviation from this ideal value would cause the meters to affect the circuit?

Explain the affect each meter has on the circuit. Use the the oscilloscope and the probes to measure Vout. Was your answer to [LR 9] Question 4 of the pre-lab correct?

This is an important conclusion so make sure you include uncertainty when presenting your measurement. Apply a square wave and triangle wave of the same frequency and amplitude [LR 10] to the circuit.

Is Vout still related to Vin by the equation you found in Question 3 of the pre-lab? Again, include uncertainty in this comparison.

Save an image of the waveform and include in your report. Based these results, summarize the behavior of a voltage divider.

Make sure that all your equipment has been turned off. Please put components back into the cups and make sure that your station appears as it did at the beginning of the lab.

With this ability, you will be able to simplify complicated circuits with ease. Additionally, you will be able to use this perspective to spot voltage and current dividers, which are easily solved and will frequently appear in subsequent labs.

You will also learn about sources of error and experimental uncertainty. The voltage divider rule as expected describes how voltage is divided among two resistors or equivalent resistance modules.

This rule works for resistors or equivalent resistance modules that are in series. Some examples are shown in Figure 3.

On the far left, there is a simple series circuit and the total voltage gets divided among the two resistors. Rtotal 3.

Rtotal This expression is the voltage divider rule and it shows that the voltage across one portion of series resistance is just a fraction of the total.

This technique works on more complicated looking arrangements too, like the others depicted in Figure 3. The key is to spot two resistor modules that are in series.

These are shown by the dotted circles. Take a look at the various current dividers of Figure 3. We can find the expression as before but now we want to find current, Io , through a branch in a parallel region with resistance R.

Again, combining Equations 3. DC Circuit Analysis 22 This is the current divider rule. The resistor network in Figure 3.

Being able to spot parallel and series modules is the key to simplifying complex networks. Can you make the parallel and series sub-circuits stand out?

Try redrawing the circuit to do so or try simply circling the sub-circuits. Using this technique, find the equivalent resistance of this network across its terminals Req.

Assume a voltage V has been applied across the terminals. What fraction of this total potential is lost across each resistor?

Recall the parallel and series modules you spotted previously - they may help you apply the voltage divider rule with ease, making this question much more simple.

Make sure you keep a record of this, and subsequent information as you will be using it during the lab. If we apply a voltage V across the terminals, a current will flow through the network.

Calculate the current passing through each resistor. For example, at a junction, more current will pass through the less resistive path than the highly resistive path.

Can you think of a similar sanity check for potential voltage? State your idea. Section 2: Superposition in Action 1. Now you know how potentials and currents are distributed through a resistor network due to ONE source in this case, a voltage source.

That is, you can solve the circuit for one independent source at a time, replacing all other independent sources with their resistive equivalents.

The voltage and current across each resistor is then simply the sum of the contributions from each source. What is the resistive equivalent of a an independent current source?

Laboratory 3. Do any of the above NOT have an equivalent resistance? Which one s? Build the circuit shown in Figure 3. Remember to use the color-code described in Lab 2.

Otherwise, the T. Experimentally determine the equivalent resistance of this network, Req. What sources of experimental error or uncertainty exist resistor tolerances, multimeter error, etc.

Note that human error sources such as miscalculation, incorrect resistor use, or incorrect measurement technique are NOT valid answers in this course.

If attentive, you can catch and correct those errors in the laboratory. In the pre-lab you found potential drops across, and current through, each [LR 2] resistor in Figure 3.

Do you expect these values to hold for an applied 10 V DC source? Experimentally, test your expectation for each resistor.

As above, quantitatively show how well your experimental values agree with your calculated values. What sources of error exist? Quantify these error sources.

It may be helpful to choose an organized method of collecting and presenting this data. With the power supply off, build the circuit shown in Figure 3.

In the pre-lab, you used the Superposition Principle to solve the current and [LR 3] voltage distribution in this circuit for arbitrary sources V1 and V2.

Quantitatively compare your experimental values with your calculated values and account for error sources as before. Was the agreement above just a coincidence?

The Superposition Principle [LR 4] says one can simply add up the voltage or current contributions from each individual independent source to get total current or voltage.

Take a look at the corresponding resistor currents and voltages from each set of measurements. Do they contribute to the total as expected?

How close are they? Account for sources of error. What new error source might you need to consider? DC Circuit Analysis 25 4. Does this rule work for AC voltages as well?

Verify these values experimentally, using your function generator to generate the AC voltage, V2. Hint: The oscilloscope and its subtract function may be of immense assistance in these measurements.

Be mindful to only have ONE earth ground the function generator ground is always earth ground and the oscilloscope ground is always earth ground too.

Did these results turn out as expected? What uncertainty do the function generator and oscilloscope introduce? This laboratory will give you a deeper understanding of capacitors; a linear circuit element that, unlike a resistor, can store energy.

You will determine the equivalent capacitance of capacitors connected in parallel and capacitors connected in series.

Using this, you will be able to simplify complicated capacitor networks. You will also see the relation between the current through a capacitor and the voltage applied.

With this, you will gain a better feeling for the properties of capacitors. We say this circuit element is linear if the function f is a linear function.

The function f is said to be linear if it satisfies the following two properties: 1. Also, if we multiply the input by a constant, then the output is multiplied by the same constant.

Capacitors: A capacitor is a passive linear circuit element designed to store energy. A capacitor consists of two conducting plates separated by an insulator.

We then say that the capacitor is storing the charge q. By differentiating equation 4. Show that a capacitor, whose current-voltage relationship is given by equation 4.

Looking at the circuit in Figure 4. For the same DC power supply, calculate the energy stored in each capacitor. First, calculate the equivalent capacitance CAB across terminals A and B that is, the equivalent capacitance of the loop containing the 3.

Finally, calculate the equivalent capacitance of Ceq of the entire circuit. To calculate these voltages you will have to make use of Ceq and equation 4.

Capacitors: One: 4. Section 1: Capacitor Voltage and Current 1. Build the circuit shown in Figure 4. Remember to color-code your circuit!

Measure the voltage across each capacitor. How do the measured voltages [LR 1] agree with the values you calculated in the pre-lab?

Try to determine the factors that could contribute to this discrepancy. If you can, quantify the contributions.

Measure the current through each capacitor. Referring to equation 4. Explain why or why not. Make sure to include units and label axes.

Using equation 4. Label the axes of your sketch. Section 2: Equivalent Capacitance Laboratory 4. Components such as capacitors are built to be within a certain tolerance of [LR 5] their stated values.

Measure the capacitance of each capacitor required for building the circuit in Figure 4. Record both the measured values and the stated values.

Now, use these capacitors to build the circuit in Figure 2. Compare these measurements to the values you calculated in the pre-lab. Are the differences solely due to the capacitor tolerances?

What else could be contributing to the difference in results? What do you observe? Does this agree with your expectations from the pre-lab?

Try to explain what is going on. Hint: Consider the effect of the meter. In this laboratory you will gain experience with one of the most useful and intuitive electronic devices, a basic op-amp.

In addition to many other functions, op-amps can be used to make stable voltage sources, signal filters or to perform mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, differentiation and integration.

These are key components in electronic control systems. Any mechanical engineer interested in mechatronics will soon find op-amps indispensable.

This is a subtle feature but when contrasted against the new type of circuits in this lab, you will notice the difference.

The circuits of this lab control their output based on their input and output! That may sound strange at first, but you will soon appreciate this powerful idea known as feedback.

This is a fundamental idea in electronics and control systems. Positive feedback adds to the input.

Negative feedback subtracts from the input. Though positive feedback systems are inherently unstable think of what happens when a microphone collects sound from an amplifying speaker , negative feedback systems can offer a variety of benefits.

Negative feedback will increase stability and frequency response of an amplifier and permit careful control of amplifier gain despite device parameters and external effects like changing temperature.

Operational amplifiers typically take advantage of this effect. Without feedback, an operational amplifier will exhibit tremendous gain, known as open-loop gain i.

By using a negative feedback loop, you can subtract from this gain to achieve a desired final gain.

This modified gain is known as the closed-loop gain. Figure 5. You may notice that the two resistors at the output comprise a voltage divider.

That is, the ratio of the two determine what fraction of Vout is between the 30 Laboratory 5. A wire connects this point to the negative terminal of the op-amp allowing it to sample a fraction of the output voltage at the input.

This is negative feedback! These two rules are possible under the ideal op-amp assumption. An ideal op-amp is shown in Figure 5.

This shows what is going on inside the op-amp. Due to the infinite input impendence, infinitesimal current, IIN enters at the input terminals.

Since infinitesimal current enters the input, the offset voltage, ZOS , is infinitesimal. Finally, the dependent voltage source amplifies this infinitesimal voltage by an infinite gain, a.

It is simply a more general form of resistance which accounts for timedependent resistances. Laboratory 5.

Dealing with indeterminate products products of zero and infinity is tricky, however, this model will help you to understand real, non-ideal op-amps.

Using information from the background section, formulate an expression for the closed-loop gain of the inverting amplifier in Figure 5.

You may have noticed that these amplifiers are active devices and thus, require a supply voltage to operate. This is possible because batteries act as floating voltage sources.

The DC power supply in the lab can operate this way. Keep this in mind when it is time to assemble your circuits. Assemble the circuit shown in Figure 5.

Also, make sure that these share the same ground as your input signal. To help with the C pin-outs, check the Laboratory 5.

If you suspect that your C is misbehaving, test-circuit that should be found at the front of the classroom to determine if the device is faulty.

Include a picture of your circuit in your lab report. Since you know the input voltage, Vin , you can use your calculated gain to find the expected Vout.

Measure Vout and the [LR 3] feedback voltage. Now you can use these to compare your experimental results to your calculations.

Are there any differences? If not or if so, explain why you arrived at this result. What is [LR 4] the input impedance of your non-ideal, C-based non-inverting amplifier?

It may be helpful to consider the voltage divider rule and to recognize this configuration as a combination of a module of known resistance and a module of unknown resistance.

Op-Amp Circuits I 34 2. Include a picture of your [LR 5] circuit in your lab report. Quantify the uncertainty on these calculations too!

Measure Vout [LR 7] and the feedback voltage. In this case, the feedback voltage at Pin 2 is known as virtual ground.

Now you can use these values for comparing your experimental results to your calculations. Again, explain any differences or lack-there-of.

The following are additional questions for your report and do not necessarily require laboratory practice.

However, you may find experimental verification very useful. What advantage does this [LR 8] type of notation offer?

Express your experimentally determined gains in decibels. This type of arrangement is known as a voltage follower. Explain the function of this amplifier and what it might be useful for.

In this laboratory, you learn about several different uses of operational amplifiers. Complex circuits are often built in stages, which are then connected, or cascaded, together.

When cascading two stages together there may be loading effects. This occurs when the input impedance of one stage is too low, and the result is that the overall circuit does not behave as expected.

You will build a voltage follower buffer which has a very high input impedance and can be used as an intermediate stage to isolate one circuit from the other.

You will also build a function generator that can be used to produce square and a triangle waveforms. One: 2. By buffer we mean, a module which will isolate the stages such that a change in second stage does not influence the performance of the first.

Measure the output of the stage, vo1. Now you can build the second stage of our circuit, shown in Figure 6. Measure, vo2 the output of the second stage.

What happens if we combine your two stages? Connect vi2 to vo1 so that the [LR 2] two stages of the circuit are cascaded together to form a single circuit.

Now, measure vo2. Does this value equal that which you measured for the second stage of the circuit alone?

What you are seeing is loading effects. To prevent this loading from occurring we can build a voltage follower and [LR 3] use it to isolate the two stages of your circuit.

To do this, build the circuit shown in Figure 6. Measure vo1 and vo2 and explain how the voltage follower succeeds in eliminating or at least reducing the loading effects.

What have you just made and why might this be useful? Dismantle your circuit. Laboratory 6. Section 2: Function Generator In this section you will build a function generator capable of producing square and triangular waveforms.

The circuit shown in Figure 6. Assemble the circuit shown in Figure 6. In the pre-lab assignment you were asked to assign values for the five [LR 4] resistors of the function generator circuit.

If the lab does not have an exact match for your specified resistors you should use the next closest resistor value; be sure to record the actual values used.

Using the relationships developed in the pre-lab, what is the new expected frequency of your waveforms? Connect your oscilloscope to the circuit such that the square wave is shown [LR 5] on channel 1 CH1 and the triangle wave on channel 2 CH2.

Provide a screen shot of both waveforms. Record the peak-to-peak voltage and frequency for both waveforms. Does this match the values you calculated previously?

Frequency Control A function generator of fixed amplitude and frequency is of limited use. In the pre-lab you should have found that the frequency of the triangle wave and hence square wave is dependent on the resistors R1 to R5.

You also should have found that the amplitude of the triangle wave is dependent on resistors R1 to R4 but independent of R5.

Thus, in order to achieve frequency control independent of amplitude control we can replace R5 with a variable resistor1. Op-Amp Circuits II 39 on the oscilloscope.

Does the response behave as expected? What happens when the resistance is increased? What happens when the resistance is decreased?

Section 3: Comparator A comparator is an example of a op-amp used without negative feedback; the absence of negative feedback causes the op-amp to have infinite gain and run at saturation.

The sign of the output depends on the comparison between an input voltage to a reference voltage, see Figure 6.

Since the output of the comparator is piecewise i. Note that in Figure 6. Describe how you could change the circuit in Figure 6.

Figure 6. The comparator runs at either positive or negative saturation depending on the values of Vin and Vref.

Slew Rate For an ideal comparator, switching between positive and negative saturation or vise versa occurs instantaneously; real op-amps, however, require a finite amount of time to adjust.

Turn CH2 off. Adjust the variable resistor added in the last section until you are generating a square wave with a frequency of 1 kHz. Take a screen shot and calculate the slew rate, SR, for the LM chip.

Make two sketches to demonstrate the affect of the slew rate on the square wave output. One sketch should be of a low-frequency square wave and the other of a highfrequency square wave.

For this lab we are forcing a multipurpose op-amp to act as a comparator. For these comparators, the switching speed is on the order of nano-seconds, enabling quicker and more accurate switching.

Label each highlighted stage e. Briefly describe the purpose, or function, of each stage. The circuit makes use of two variable resistors.

Describe the effect each variable resistors has on VGEN out. Label and describe the purpose of each of the five highlighted stages of the function generator circuit shown.

As mechanical engineers, you have previously learned to build first- and second-order dynamical systems with masses, springs and dashpots.

It turns out we can build electrical circuits out of resistors, capacitors, and inductors that are governed by the same equations!

This lab will give you the chance to build and test first-order dynamical systems from this circuit elements.

You will also examine the frequency response of these circuits. What about the resistor? That is, at each instant in time, the voltage across the resistor and capacitor must add to equal the applied voltage at that instant.

Since current is the migration of charge, one would expect the voltage drop across the resistor to be highest during the early part of the discharge.

What if the applied voltage is changed continuously as in AC? The previously considered circuits will 42 Laboratory 7.

First-Order Circuits 43 exhibit a response based on their impedance. This requires a completely different treatment. We have encountered three major circuit elements: resistors, capacitors and inductors.

In DC, resistors have a resistance, R, capacitors have an infinite resistance and inductors have zero resistance. This treatment is actually a special case of the more general AC treatment.

In AC, resistance is generalized in a term known as impedance, which essentially has the same effect, with an added twist.

Impedance, Z, is a complex number. That is, impedance is not restricted to the set of real numbers. It may include imaginary numbers as well.

In fact, in AC, the impedances of capacitors and inductors are pure imaginary numbers. The impedance of a resistor is simply its resistance, which is a pure real number.

As such, the equivalent impedance of the series capacitor and resistor in Figure 7. So if the impedance of the resistor is simply the resistance, what is the impedance of capacitors and inductors?

These elements are a little more interesting. As you can see, the impedance of a capacitor will increase towards infinity at low frequency but the impedance of an inductor will decrease to zero.

How exciting! This is why we treated capacitors as open circuits and inductors as short circuits in DC. Equation 7.

This is a very important distinction. In terms of time-dependence, define transient and steady-state and indicate those terms in this equation.

Put these tools to the test. Assume voltage Vi in the RC circuit in Figure 7. Sketch the voltage across the capacitor and resistor as a function of time 3.

Sketch the voltage across the capacitor and resistor as a function of time. Look at Figure 7.

Hint: This may seem very difficult at first, Laboratory 7. First-Order Circuits 44 but the same rules apply.

This is still a step-response. The only difference is your step does not start from 0 V. Solve for Vo in Figure 7. For the circuit in Figure 7.

What happens if we take Vo across the resistor instead of the capacitor? A low-pass filter attenuates high-frequencies while allowing low frequencies to pass with little attenuation.

The opposite applies to a high-pass filter. A band-pass filter allows a select band of frequencies to pass with little attenuation.

Indicate what type of filters you have in your sketches. Capacitors: One: 0. It would be interesting to observe this response in a circuit that you create and then compare theoretical predictions to experimental results.

Assemble the circuit shown in Figure 7.

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  1. Sie haben ins Schwarze getroffen. Darin ist etwas auch mir scheint es die gute Idee. Ich bin mit Ihnen einverstanden.

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